An Overview On The Types Of Curriculum
Students barely believe that curriculum is something that can be written or open. The curriculum mainly concentrates on the goals and objectives of a student. The word Curriculum has Latin origins meaning ‘run to a course”. The following are some of the definitions for curriculum mentioned in Oliva (1997) (4).
· That which is taught in schools
· A set of subjects.
· A program of studies.
· A set of materials
· A sequence of courses.
· A set of performance objectives
· A course of study
· Is everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities, guidance, and interpersonal relationships.
· Everything that is planned by the school personnel.
· A series of experiences undergone by learners in a school.
· That which an individual learner experiences as a result of schooling.
In the olden days, curriculum was completely based on instructional deliveries. Now curriculum mainly depends on various family learning theories which draw psychological classifications. Some of them include Social, Information Processing, Personality, and Behavioural classifications. Shane and Longstreet have put down the various sections in a curriculum orientation. It includes child-centred, society-centred, knowledge-centred, or the eclectic. The philosophical orientations of a curriculum include Idealism, Realism, Perennialism, Essentialism, Experimentalism, Existentialism, Constructivism and Re-constructivism.
It must be noted that the curriculum prevalent in the United States has caused a great impact on the above classifications. Wilson (1999) spoke about curriculum and its features in a unique way. According to Wilson, all things which impart knowledge to the people are the constituents of a curriculum. All human beings begin learning at a very young age and thus Wilson’s view on a learned curriculum emphasis it to be a combination of hidden, null and socio-political awareness. All students improve their knowledge on various things through exposure and detailed understanding. They tend to learn new lessons everyday through all people who inhabit their school like the teachers, staff, secretary, cafeteria workers, friends and peers. They also get influenced by the attitude and behaviour exhibited by the teachers and faculty members of the educational institution. But many educators are unaware of the fact that the minute things which they do leave a great impact and influence on their students as well.
The following are the different types of curriculum that are followed in schools:
· Open or written curriculum- This curriculum simply writes formal instructions about school experiences. It is a written document or a file which backs the international instructional agenda. Thus open curriculum refers to drawing of conclusions and understandings which are supervised by the administrators and curriculum directors.
· Societal curriculum- Cortes (1981) defined societal curriculum to be the massive, ongoing, informal curriculum of family, friends circle, neighbourhoods, religious destinations, organizations, occupation and profession, mass media, and other socializing forces that educate and impart knowledge to all people throughout their lives. These kinds of curriculum have now faced an increasing growth because of the influences of the social media. This has in turn created new perspectives among the students and public.
· Hidden curriculum- This type of curriculum is entirely based on the structure and the existence of schools. It also depends on the changes that take place in the schools established. Some general practices of the hidden curriculum include obtaining messages from the schools. These messages may be positive or negative. They mainly depend on the perspectives of the observer. According to David P. Gardner simple learning comes basically with a detailed exposure of living. The tests and exams students pass at their curriculum are just not the only sources of education but merely a ritual. Knowing the least, leads to acquiring detailed educational concepts.
· Null curriculum- Eisner has defined the different aspects of a curriculum. According to Eisner there is something like a paradox involved in framing a curriculum that does not exist. When people begin worrying about the consequences, the effect of the school program and the contribution of the curriculum in altering and modifying these consequences, then it is not just important to exhibit concerns on the explicit and implicit curriculum of the school, but should also focus on the subjects and concepts which the schools have missed to teach. The concepts which the school teach and those which they not are equally important. Ignorance is not just a medial void, but has essential effects on the various options students are free to consider, the substitutes they can examine and the perspectives with which they face and solve problems and resolve issues.